Emerging Infectious Disease Network
West Nile Encephalitis
The West Nile Encephalitis Reference Library is a collaborative initiative of international veterinary, medical and scientific experts to share information and enhance academic discussion of emerging infectious diseases and issues associated with preparedness,  response, mitigation and policy. ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .


Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282
Email: s.m.apatow@humanitarian.net
Internet: www.humanitarian.net

Pathobiologics International
Internet: www.pathobiologics.org

In The Spotlight
9.14.2002: West Nile Virus - Biodefense and Epidemiological Tracking  Includes comparative maps of spread from 1999-2002 and current (as of
9.11.2002) USGS United States maps for bird, human, mosquito, sentinel and veterinary cases. Map Graphics take time to load.

12.14.99: West Nile Virus May Be New Deadly Strain, USGS Tells Congress: Recent crow die-offs suggest the West Nile virus which emerged in New York in late August could be more deadly to North American bird species than to species in Africa, the Middle East and Europe, where the virus is normally found, a USGS scientist reported today at a congressional field hearing held in Connecticut by the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

Environmental Protection Agency
  • EPA: Mosquitoes and Pesticides Information on ground and aerial application of pesticides along with non-chemical forms of control to eliminate mosquitoes.
  • EPA: Pesticides and Mosquito Control:  EPA reviews and approves pesticides and their labeling to ensure that the pesticides used to protect public health are applied by methods which minimize the risk of human exposure and adverse health and environmental effects.
Arboviral Encephalitides West Nile Encephalitis


According to the AVMA, article on 10.21.99 entitled "Veterinarians key to discovering outbreak of exotic encephalitis":

In late August came the first reports of a human encephalitis outbreak in New York City and nearby Nassau and Westchester counties. The CDC would initially attribute the cause to the mosquito-borne St Louis encephalitis, which has been seen before in the Midwest and Southeast but never New York.

Around that same time, more than 70 miles away in the Riverhead area of Long Island, 22 horses began showing neurologic signs of an encephalitic infection — lethargy, weakness in the hindquarters, and convulsions. Initially, local veterinarians suspected the horse deaths and illnesses were caused by equine protozoal myelitis. Later, on Oct 19, after 13 of the horses had died or were euthanatized, the USDA-APHIS announced they all tested positive for the West Nile virus. Horses are highly susceptible to the virus — a 1996 report from Egypt indicated 40 percent mortality.

The Global Emerging Infections System (GEIS
West Nile Virus Information

Public Health Alert:  The New York City Department of Health West Nile Virus Information Includes:  Dead Bird Reporting Form, Standing Water Report Form, Surveillance and Control Plan

MEDSERVE Medical News: Ticks may harbor encephalitis

1.21.2000:   CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Vol. 49/No. 2
Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, and Control of West Nile Virus Infection

Migration of Birds  - Routes of Migration 

Science Magazine:
Journal Articles - Abstract & Full Text WHO-Journal References for Outbreak of West Nile Virus in Romania NBII (National Biological Information Infrastructure):  Research:
  • Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report: Search



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