Emerging Infectious Disease Network
West Nile Encephalitis
Nile Encephalitis Reference Library is a collaborative initiative of
international veterinary, medical and scientific experts to share
information and enhance academic discussion of emerging infectious
diseases and issues associated with preparedness, response,
mitigation and policy. .....
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Director of Research & Development
Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Consortium Graduate Studies
for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
In The Spotlight
||9.14.2002: West Nile Virus - Biodefense and Epidemiological
Tracking Includes comparative maps of spread from 1999-2002
and current (as of
USGS United States maps for bird, human,
mosquito, sentinel and veterinary cases. Map Graphics take time to
12.14.99: West Nile Virus May Be New Deadly Strain, USGS Tells
Congress: Recent crow die-offs suggest the West Nile virus which
emerged in New York in late August could be more deadly to North
American bird species than
to species in Africa, the Middle East and Europe, where the virus is
normally found, a USGS scientist reported today at a congressional
field hearing held in Connecticut by the Senate Committee on
Environment and Public Works.
- Medline: West Nile Virus
Tropical Storms, Hurricanes, Floods and Encephalitis
Webcast (RealPlayer) Preparing for West Nile Virus:
Your Community be Next: Public Health Rounds,
the University of North Carolina School of Public Health and Centers
Disease Control hosts the "Preparing for West Nile Virus, Will
Community be Next ?" national live satellite and webcast to increase
of West Nile virus and promote a national dialogue among public health
and professionals on vector-borne diseases and the strategic response
to minimize their impact on human and environmental health.
West Nile Virus: Biopreparedness Through Community
& Family Preparedness Resource outlines topics of source
reduction for mosquitos and how to reduce risk of infection. Developed
in cooperation with the FEMA Community & Family Preparedness
post discussion and recommendations with contacts at the World Health
Organization, USGS, USDA, US Army Center for Health Promotion and
and Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at John Hopkins.
Environmental Risk Analysis Program - West Nile Virus The
site provides news
and links to an extensive list of resources and educational materials,
including a comprehensive bibliography of scientific literature,
resources for the
public, a WNV glossary, archives to the WESTNILEVIRUS-L listserv (Archives).
West Nile Virus Surveillance - USA 2000 Final Report
Visit the ProMED West Nile Virus Site
Surveillance and Control A special West Nile virus surveillance
program has been initiated in 48 states and four cities. See the National West Nile Virus Surveillance System, 2000:
Final Plan for a full description. Data are being collected on a
weekly basis and will be reported for the following five
categories: wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases,
veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. Go to this link at the National Atlas of
United States to view weekly maps and tables of data collected:
- CDC Surveillance, Prevention, and Control Guidelines.
2001. [294Kb pdf].
Guideline: Prevention and Control of West Nile Virus Infection in
Equine and Other Livestock or Poultry
National Center for Infectious Diseases: West Nile Virus
- West Nile Virus Post Mortem: Biodefense Quarterly,
December 1999, Volume 1, Number 3 Recognizing current
strengths and weaknesses in our ability to detect and respond to a
potential biological attack
and Pesticides Information
on ground and aerial application of pesticides along with non-chemical
of control to eliminate mosquitoes.
- EPA: Pesticides and Mosquito Control: EPA reviews and approves pesticides
and their labeling to ensure that the pesticides used to protect public
health are applied by methods which minimize the risk of human exposure
and adverse health and environmental effects.
the AVMA, article on 10.21.99 entitled "Veterinarians key to
outbreak of exotic encephalitis":
August came the first reports of a human encephalitis outbreak in New
and nearby Nassau and Westchester counties. The CDC would initially
attribute the cause to the mosquito-borne St Louis encephalitis, which
has been seen before in the Midwest and Southeast but never New York.
same time, more than 70 miles away in the Riverhead area of Long
Island, 22 horses began showing neurologic signs of an encephalitic
infection — lethargy, weakness in the hindquarters, and convulsions.
Initially, local veterinarians suspected the horse deaths and illnesses
were caused by equine protozoal myelitis.
Later, on Oct 19, after 13 of the horses had died or were euthanatized,
USDA-APHIS announced they all tested positive for the West Nile virus.
are highly susceptible to the virus — a 1996 report from Egypt
Emerging Infections System (GEIS)
West Nile Virus Information
Public Health Alert: The New York City Department of Health West Nile Virus
Information Includes: Dead Bird Reporting Form, Standing
Water Report Form, Surveillance and Control Plan
Medical News: Ticks may harbor encephalitis
CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Vol. 49/No. 2
Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, and Control of
West Nile Virus Infection
Migration of Birds - Routes of
Journal Articles - Abstract & Full Text
WHO-Journal References for Outbreak of West Nile Virus in
(National Biological Information Infrastructure):
& Mortality Weekly Report: Search