Humanitarian Resource Institute:  A U.S. & International Resource on the Scope of Humanitarian Assistance

May 18, 2001

Stephen M. Apatow
Director of Research and Development 
Humanitarian Resource Institute Biodefense Reference Library
Eastern USA: (203) 668-0282   Western USA: (775) 884-4680


In the light of discussion regarding eco-terrorism as a potential pathway for the introduction of Foot and Mouth Disease into the UK, the topic of agro-terrorism ( has been added to the FMD Reference Library.

According to Dr. Michael Margolian in the paper Agricultural Bio-terrorism: View from the United States:

Since the 1960s, the Department of Defense (DoD) has worked with USDA to protect America's plants and animals against disease. In 1971, 4,000 DoD personnel provided assistance to USDA during a Texas outbreak of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis. Some 140 soldiers were enlisted in support of the campaign against the 1983 Pennsylvanian outbreak of Avian Influenza. In June 1997, DoD lent equipment to USDA for combating the Medfly in Florida. In 1998, DoD assisted the South Dakota National Guard in developing contingency plans to deal with a potential biological attack against the state's swine population. In 1999, DoD's US Army Medical Institute of Infectious Diseases supported the Centers for Disease Control's efforts to isolate the cause of New York's West Nile Fever outbreak. 

According to the Final Summary of the Year 2000 West Nile Virus (WNV) Outbreak, a total of 143 counties in 12 States and the District of Columbia had confirmed findings of WNV in a mosquito, bird, or mammal. The Centers for Disease control has now initiated a special West Nile virus surveillance program in 48 states and four cities (West Nile Virus Disease Reference Library:

In order to ensure that the UK FMD outbreak scenario is not repeated in the United States, Humanitarian Resource Institute is requesting a thorough review of the Tripartite 2000 final reports (National Association of State Departments of Agriculture (NASDA): by relevant state and federal agencies that would be involved in the current Foot and Mouth Disease Federal Response Plan.

Humanitarian Resource Institute has aggressively initiated educational initiatives on Foot & Mouth disease since late February. Today, in collaboration with international veterinary, medical and scientific experts we continue the development of resources to enhance academic discussion of emerging infectious diseases and issues associated with preparedness, response, mitigation and policy.  For additional information, references & discussion on FMD in Europe & implications for the USA:

Humanitarian Resource Institute
Emerging Infectious Disease Network
Foot & Mouth Disease Reference Library

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