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2001 UK FMD Outbreak Review
Overview & Notes for Presentation: AVBC 8th Annual Meeting,
Stephen M. Apatow,  "Bioterrorism and the Biologics Industry," 5 November 2003

•  10,472: (number of premises recorded on which animals have been or are due to be slaughtered, DEFRA, June 2003.) 
•  10,791,000 animals culled (Meat and Livestock Commission): the UK breeding flock was reduced by 13%  (in England alone, by 18%), the UK breeding cattle herd was reduced by 6%.
•  Economic cost: $20 billion (US) (Vannieuwenhoven , 2001 Convention News. American Veterinary Medical Association. Wednesday, July 18, 2001.)

This figure is but a remote expression of the concrete losses, which include: the premature deaths of over 10 million animals, killed in ways which were almost always unacceptably, indeed criminally, inhumane and very often so horribly cruel as to be an occasion of lasting national shame; the loss of irreplaceable special breeds; the horror experienced by those with a scrap of humanity involved in the cull; the misery of thousands of small farmers and small businesspersons in areas related to farming and tourism whose incomes were drastically reduced, some of whom were driven into bankruptcy; the (continuing) pollution caused by the disposal; the frustration of the enjoyment of the countryside for a year. -- The Power to Panic: The Animal Health Act 2002:  David Campbell and Robert Lee, Cardiff Law School and ESRC Research Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society (B.R.A.S.S.)

Date: June 28, 2004

To: U.S. AgVet Network

From: Stephen M. Apatow
Director of Research and Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute Biodefense Reference Library
Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Center
Eastern USA: (203) 668-0282   Western USA: (775) 884-4680

Pathobiologics International



I am contemplating a proposal for HRI to coordinate the purchase of approx. 100 million doses of  FMD Vaccine [1,2], covering the full range of serotypes, that could be accessible to USDA (or any U.N. member country) in the event of a large scale outbreak [3].

There is consensus that USDA would not be able to implement it's current federal response plan (in a Crimson Sky scenario) [4], and if a widespread depopulation strategy was ever attempted the damage to the United States/global economy would be unprecedented [5,6], there would be a call for the immediate resignation of the leadership and an alternative control strategy.

In conjunction with this initiative would be a call for the use of PCR technology (currently used by the Department of Defense to protect military assets, high value targets, real time protection of military personal and political leaders) in agricultural applications, since in 2000, research/tests had been developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service for
FMD, Classical Swine Fever, African Swine Fever, Rinderpest, Avian Influenza, and Newcastle Disease [7].  The objective would be to place internet linked detection devices within 4 hours of any suspect foreign animal disease outbreak in the United States.

I would like to open this topic for discussion.  Industry/corporations interesting in providing funding for these initiatives can contact me directly.


1. Merial: FMD Vaccines:
2. Vaccines may be key to controlling FMD, American Veterinary Medical Association, July 2003:

3. International Rapid Response Strategy Proposed, Humanitarian Resource Institute, November 2003:
4. Producers and Producer Organizations Overlooked in Contingency Planning Discussions on Biosecurity, Pathobiologics International, November 2003:
5. APHIS Economic Discussion & Recommendations to Protect the US Economy and Agricultural Industry, Humanitarian Resource Institute, August 2001:
FMD US Economic Discussion & Producers Crucial Role in a Successful Eradication Campaign, Humanitarian Resource Institute, August 2001:

7 U.S. Agricultural and Food Security: Who Will Provide the Leadership?, Centaur Science Group, 2003:

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