January 27, 2002
UNITED STATES FMD VACCINATION DISCUSSION: ANALYSIS OF A NON-VACCINATION STRATEGY SUPPLEMENTED WITH EMERGENCY VACCINATION
The recent outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in the UK, index case to restoration of FMD Free Status, encompassed 9124 affected premises with approximately 10,849,000 animals culled. FMD rapidly spread to several European countries including the Netherlands which implemented an emergency vaccination strategy that contributed to the control, elimination of the disease and rapid restoration of meat exports in Europe.
Emergency vaccine is a high-potency preparation designed to elicit a rapid immune response. Animals vaccinated with emergency vaccine are protected within about 4 days of vaccination, which protection lasts about 6 months. Emergency vaccines may be used in a 'ring' or 'protective' vaccination programme (susceptible animals on holdings around an outbreak are vaccinated to protect them against aerosol infection), or 'dampening down'. 'Dampening down' is the vaccination of a chosen group of animals at risk from an outbreak.
Ring or a protective' vaccination programme can be implemented to:
(1) Decrease the number of infections and thus the production of large quantities of virus particles and shedding into an environment where they can infect other animals.
(2) Protect susceptible animals and 'dampening down' to reduce virus spread by reducing the number of susceptible animals, assisting a pre-emptive slaughter policy in places where poor infrastructure, inadequate manpower, delayed stamping out or other factors resulted in insufficient capacity to dispose of carcasses, and to reduce the severity of direct economic losses from the outbreak.
As noted in the Technical
review of diagnostics and vaccines as a tool in the prevention of FMD.
Kris De Clercq Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Groeselenberg
99, B-1180 Brussels (Ukkel), Belgium.
Foot-and Mouth Disease Vaccine Use Model: (Belfrage, Corso, Norden, Disney, Schoenbaum): Previous outbreaks of FMD in the United States have been eliminated by destroying the affected herds and burying the carcasses (stamping out). In today's political climate and environmental awareness, this kind of activity may not be easily accomplished especially if there are massive numbers of animals affected. Economically, stamping out may not be the best control or elimination method. New trade agreements allow for sectioning off portions of countries into affected and non-affected regions. Therefore, at the request of the North American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank, we have examined the costs and benefits of vaccine use in comparison to stamping out without vaccine use.
Papers presented on vaccination at the International Conference on Prevention and Control of Foot and Mouth Disease, 12 - 13 December 2001, Charlemagne - Bruxelles
Ministry announced Tuesday. Vaccines, imported from Colombia, Brazil and Argentina, have been in
circulation since Tuesday to prepare for the immunization campaign, which will cover 11 million cows, the ministry said.
states reaching 95% of the herd, had been concluded. The drugs and pharmaceuticals industry currently have 20mil doses available for a monthly production of 25mil and 35mil doses.
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