Humanitarian University Consortium

Distance Education Initiative

Classical Dance Develoment Based
Biomechanics and Orthopedic Analysis Level I Online Test

Presented by

Stephen M. Apatow, Director of Research and Development  
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Law

The following online test encompasses 20 questions (True/False) associated with the Biomechanics and Orthopedic Analysis Level I Online Course. 

Fee: PayPal $250.00 processing fee, required for validation: certificate of completion.

Upon payment of the processing fee, completion and submission of this test, individuals with a passing grade of 75% or above will receive a certificate of completion by Humanitarian Resource Institute.






Zip Code:


Email Address:


 In order to develop precision control of the human frame and center of gravity, the body must be correctly aligned and connected as one unit (bottom of the feet to the top of the head). True or False.

 Correct weight bearing of the foot encompasses even distribution, connected to facilitate progression to demi-pointe and pointe. True or False.

Incorrect weightbearing on the foot/ankle complex corresponds with numerous injuries including ankle sprains, achilles tendonitis and bone growth patterns (bunions) to accommodate abnormal stresses. True or False.

As the legs are bent, the knee caps (center of patella) should track directly over the center of the ankle and foot complex.  True or False.

If a plumbline drops to the outside of the foot complex (lateral), internal rotation of the knee joint is the cause of many developmental challenges that include the most common mechanisms of knee injury (internal rotation) and torsional stresses of the ankle/foot complex. True or False.

Hip rotation is the determining factor for the functional turnout, based on correct alignment of the knee, ankle and foot complex. True or False.

To achieve increased external rotation of the lower extremity, students may increase their lumbar lordosis or "screw the knee."  Increasing lordosis increases the tension on the iliofemoral ligament allowing increased external rotation of the hip.. True or False.

"Screwing the knee" is done by assuming a demiplie (half knee bend) position, allowing the 180 degree positioning of the feet to be achieved at the floor, then straightening the knees without moving the feet.

"Rolling the foot" can produce posterior tibial tendonitis and bunions.. True or False.

An imaginary plumbline dropped from the knee should land over the second toe.  If the plumbline falls medial to the foot during plie, then the medial knee structures are seeing increased strain. True or False.

Patellar tendonitis, often a part of the presentation of Osgood-Schlatter disease, is seen in both the young dancer and gymnast.  Patellar tendonitis is also called "runner's knee" because it is commonly seen in athletes with poor gait mechanics. True or False.

Most dancers or athletes do not know that a lack of turnout or hip range of motion could be caused by soft tissue restrictions which can be addressed with an accentuated stretch and flexibility program.. True or False.

Lack of abdominal strength and connection of the erector muscles (controlled lordosis) combined with disconnected alignment of the upper extremity contributes to significant stresses in the spine
.  True or False.

Instructors need to beware of the child who achieves "knees over feet" by assuming a increased lordotic position. True or False.

The shoulder complex (D) is held back and down with concurrent contracture of the pectoral (chest) and latissimus (upper back) muscles (base of occiput over the head of the humerous that slightly behind the clavicular head). True or False.

16. I
mpingement syndrome of the shoulder complex includes (1) acute traumatic bursitis (caused by a direct blow) (2) primary acromioclavicular pathology (acute tenderness), or a (3) cervical disc (neck symptoms and nerve involvement beyond the elbow). True or False. 

17. Thoracic outlet syndromes are related to lower elements of the brachial plexus from L-5 to S-1.  

18. "More than 10 million sports injuries are treated each year in the United States."  

19. Many injuries can be prevented through a simple flexibility focus with emphasis on classical ballet based alignment mechanics.  

20. All orthopedic and physical therapy modalities should be based on optimization of correct postural alignment, not symptomatic alleviation that ignores the mechanism of stress.