Humanitarian University Consortium
Distance Education Initiative
Dance Develoment Based
Biomechanics and Orthopedic Analysis Level
I Online Test
Apatow, Director of Research and Development
The following online test encompasses 20 questions (True/False)
associated with the Biomechanics and Orthopedic Analysis
Level I Online Course.
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate
Studies Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Law
Fee: $50.00 processing fee, required for validation: certificate
Upon payment of the processing fee, completion
and submission of this test, individuals with a passing grade
of 75% or above will receive a certificate of completion by Humanitarian
1. In order to develop precision control of the human frame and center
of gravity, the body must be correctly aligned and connected as one unit
(bottom of the feet to the top of the head). True or False.
weight bearing of the foot encompasses even distribution, connected to
facilitate progression to demi-pointe and pointe. True or False.
3. Incorrect weightbearing on the foot/ankle complex corresponds
with numerous injuries including ankle sprains, achilles tendonitis and
bone growth patterns (bunions) to accommodate abnormal stresses. True or False.
4. As the legs are bent, the knee caps
(center of patella) should track directly over the center of the ankle
and foot complex. True or False.
5. If a plumbline drops to the outside of
the foot complex (lateral), internal rotation of the knee joint is the cause
of many developmental challenges that include the most common mechanisms
of knee injury (internal rotation) and torsional stresses of the ankle/foot
True or False.
6. Hip rotation is the determining
factor for the functional turnout, based on correct alignment of the knee,
ankle and foot complex. True or False.
7. To achieve increased external rotation of the lower extremity,
students may increase their lumbar lordosis or "screw the knee."
Increasing lordosis increases the tension on the iliofemoral ligament
allowing increased external rotation of the hip.. True or False.
8. "Screwing the knee" is done by assuming a demiplie (half knee
bend) position, allowing the 180 degree positioning of the feet to be
achieved at the floor, then straightening the knees without moving the
9. "Rolling the foot" can produce posterior tibial tendonitis and
True or False.
imaginary plumbline dropped from the knee should land over the second
toe. If the plumbline falls medial to the foot during plie, then
the medial knee structures are seeing increased strain. True or False.
11. Patellar tendonitis, often a part
of the presentation of Osgood-Schlatter disease, is seen in both the
young dancer and gymnast. Patellar tendonitis is also called "runner's
knee" because it is commonly seen in athletes with poor gait mechanics. True or False.
12. Most dancers or athletes do not know that a lack of turnout
or hip range of motion could be caused by soft tissue restrictions
which can be addressed with an accentuated stretch and flexibility program.. True or False.
13. Lack of abdominal strength and connection
of the erector muscles (controlled lordosis) combined with disconnected
alignment of the upper extremity contributes to significant stresses in
True or False.
14. Instructors need to beware of the
child who achieves "knees over feet" by assuming a increased lordotic
True or False.
15. The shoulder complex (D) is held
back and down with concurrent contracture of the pectoral (chest) and
latissimus (upper back) muscles (base of occiput over the head of the humerous
that slightly behind the clavicular head). True or False.
16. Impingement syndrome of the shoulder complex includes (1) acute
traumatic bursitis (caused by a direct blow) (2) primary acromioclavicular
pathology (acute tenderness), or a (3) cervical disc (neck symptoms and
nerve involvement beyond the elbow). True or False.
Thoracic outlet syndromes are related to lower elements
of the brachial plexus from L-5 to S-1.
18. "More than 10 million sports injuries
are treated each year in the United States."
injuries can be prevented through a simple flexibility focus with emphasis
on classical ballet based alignment mechanics.
20. All orthopedic and physical therapy modalities should be based
on optimization of correct postural alignment, not symptomatic alleviation
that ignores the mechanism of stress.