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Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282
Email: s.m.apatow@humanitarian.net
Internet: www.humanitarian.net

Url: www.H-II.org

18 September 2013

24 July 2013
22 July 2013
15 July 2013
10 July 2013

Syrian American Medical Association - There have been more than 35 documented chemical weapons attacks in different areas in Syria since December 23, 2012 when the first was reported. It also took place in Khaldiya district. It is estimated that those attacks resulted in 150 deaths. --
ARCS condemns the use of chemical weapons in Khaldiya District:  American Relief Coalition for Syria (ARCS), 6 July 2013.

14 June 2013
3 June 2013

Adm. James Stavridis was supreme allied commander at NATO from 2009 to 2013 and head of U.S. Southern Command in Miami from 2006 to 2009, Dean of the Fletcher School at Tufts University, Washington Post, 31 May 2013.

29 May 2013
17 May 2013

8 May 2013

MEMRI TV- The Middle East Media Research Institute: Defecting Syrian Officer Brigadier-General Zaher Al-Saket: I Was Ordered to Use Chemical Weapons Al-Arabiya TV (Dubai/Saudi Arabia).

1 May 2013

Transfer of Chemical and Biological weapons to transnational terrorist groups, moves the defense and Interpol counterterrorism community into crisis response. -- Syria: Iran - Hezbollah - Al Qaeda Counterinsurgency Crisis Spiral: HRI:H-II OPSEC, 1 May 2013.

28 April 2013

Getting a grasp on the CBRNE WMD Terrorist Threat to the Middle East and International Security.

Syria is widely believed to have one of the largest stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons in the world, including stores of deadly sarin, mustard, and VX gases. Israel, France, Britain, and now the United States say that such weapons—most likely sarin—have already been used there. According to U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel, "the Syrian regime has used chemical weapons on a small scale," which "violates every convention of warfare." --  A Brief History of Chemical Warfare: National Geographic, 28 April 2013.

Syrian Bioweapons Program: Anthrax, Plague, Tularemia, Botulinium, Smallpox, Aflotoxin, Cholera, Ricin, Camelpox....  sections of their chemical and nuclear weapons moved to into the Baqaa Valley in Lebanon. -- Syria's Bio-Warfare Threat: an interview with Dr. Jill Dekker: Consultant to the NATO Defense Establishment in bio-warfare and counter terrorism. -- New English Review, Dec 2007.
9 April 2013
24 March 2013
22 March 2013

Chemical attacks in Syria, organophosphates.  Physician appeals "At least send us Atropine." -
CBRNE World:

20 March 2013

Independent reports from the field and from Aleppo Medical Council indicated that the Gas caused respiratory and neurologic symptoms and death. Doctors who treated the patients in the Aleppo university hospital and Al-Rajaa hospital think that the Gas used caused Cholinergic effects that can be reversed by Physostigmine.According to Aleppo medical council, doctors from the field described the presenting signs and symptoms as following: acute bronchospasm, acute respiratory distress and pulmonary edema required intubation, hypotension and severe miosis (pinpoint pupils). Patients were treated with Atropine, oxygen and mechanical ventilation.
-- SAMS condemns the use of chemical weapons and calls for protection of civilians: 1 February 2013

Legal basis for counterterrorism operations is Self Defense:

"A threatened State, according to long established international law, can take military action as long as the threatened attack is imminent, no other means would deflect it and the action is proportionate." -- Counterterrorism: Self-Defense

Syrian biological weapons research center in Jamarya destroyed - 
The Fallout from the Air Raid on Syria: Why Israel is Concerned: Time. 1 February 2013. 

Focus moves to CBRNE "Agent Defeat Weapons"  - 
How the U.S. Could Take Out Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Popular Mechanics, 11 December 2012.

30 January 2013

Failure to secure Syrian CBRNE stockpiles, results in focus on Mass Casualty Management in crisis response.
Israel, Arab countries urged to increase syndromic surveillance for Syrian Bioterror Threat

US banks in stress-test ‘global shock’

HRI:IDIN Variables associated with a WMD911 includes mass casualties, the closure of roads, airports and waterways causing interstate and international commerce to potentially grind to a halt as containment and control becomes the priority: Weapons of Mass Destruction, Nonproliferation and International Security: Stephen M. Apatow, Humanitarian Resource Institute Legal Resource Center, October 2002.

SARS Worst Case: World trade, travel shut down 12-24 months: SARS: Down But Still a Threat: National Intelligence Council, August 2003. 

28 January 2013

Syria now viewed as a global coordinated CBRNE Counterterrorism Operation
Israel steps up action on Syria weapons

A large part of Syria’s chemical weapons has been removed from storage at Mount Qassioun and transferred by civilian cars chauffeured from Hezbollah soldiers to Hezbollah strongholds in southern Beqaa Valley in eastern Lebanon. --  Defecting Syrian Officer: Chemical Weapons Already Transferred to Hezbollah: JewishPress, 12 December 2012.

18 January 2013

Syria now viewed as counterinsurgency nightmare larger in scope than Iraq/Afghanistan combined w worlds largest CBRNE Stockpile unsecured. 

Following the transition of Syria to a failed state, transnational terrorist organizations have been allowed access to unsecured chemical and biological weapons for 22 months, with Iran maintaining control of CBRNE stockpiles via joint military command:
9 January 2013

Leaders focus on preventing a Chernobyl in the Middle East

The Financial Times reports nuclear experts are raising concerns about the safety of up to 50 tonnes of unenriched uranium in Syria where an increasingly violent and chaotic civil war could put the stockpile at risk. -- Fears Syria's uranium stockpiles going to Iran Financial Times, Global Mining News, 8 January 2013.

27 December 2012

Syria viewed as a CBRNE International Security Threat from Day 1

The Iranian/Syrian Bioweapon's discussion "Syria's Bio-Warfare Threat: an interview with Dr. Jill Dekker,"
focus areas include:

* The number of civilians have already been killed in Homs and Aleppo by Syria's biological weapons program.

* The types of bio-warfare agents and materials that might have been transferred from Iraq to Syria.

* Threat analysis and contingency plans for (1) use of biological pathogens as a Syrian 'offensive' weapon capability or (2) transnational terrorist acquisition of agents that include: anthrax, plague, tularemia, botulinium, smallpox, aflotoxin, cholera, ricin, camelpox.

26 December 2012
Agent 15: 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate (BZ)

24 December 2012

Report from the Field on the gas used in Homs by the Syrian regime

The regime shelled the neighborhood of Al-Khaledeyya in the old city of Homs with chemical gas that lead to the death of 7 people and impacted more than 50 people.

The Gas caused respiratory and Neurologic symptoms and death.

Doctors who treated the patients think that the Gas used in Agent-15, that will lead to Cholinergic effects that can be reversed by Physostigmine. The treatment with Atropine (the traditional antidote for Cholinergic chemical weapons) may lead to worsening of symptoms.

The Gas effects started few seconds after the area was shelled. Right after the shelling, patients described seeing white gas with odor then they had severe shortness of breath, loss of vision, inability to speak, flushed face, dizziness, paralysis, Nausea and vomiting and increased respiratory secretions. Doctors who treated patients said that patients had pinpoint pupils and bronchospasm. Patients were treated in a field hospital. Gas masks were not available.

Posted to
SAMS (Syrian American Medical Society): Facebook.

Chemical Weapons Deployed in Syria - Israel Defense

The opposition forces claimed the gas that was dispersed is very similar in its qualities to Sarin, considered to be one of the most lethal nerve agents. “The situation is difficult – we have no gas masks, and the doctors said it is connected to Sarin," eyewitnesses told the television network.  -- Reports from Syria: Deaths from Poisonous Gas in Homs: Isreal Defense, 24 December 2012. 

The general and traditional definition of a chemical weapon is a toxic chemical contained in a delivery system, such as a bomb or shell.  The Convention defines chemical weapons much more generally. The term chemical weapon is applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are also considered weapons themselves.  --  Brief Description of Chemical Weapons, Chemical Weapon defined by the CWC, CW Agent Group, Persistency Rate of Action:Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 

The Syrian military has hundreds of tons of chemical warfare substances. It is enough that only a tiny percentage of the amount fall into the hands of elements that are part of the Global Jihad organizations and find a way outside of Syria to create an unprecedented terror threat. There is also concern that there will be an attempt to launch chemical weapons via surface-to-surface missiles that fall into the hands of “irresponsible” groups, or that Assad will instruct the launch of such weapons the day he loses his regime. -- Israel’s greatest nightmare is beginning to materialize:  Isreal Defense, 24 December 2012.

11 December 2012

The Director General of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Dr Bernard Vallat called for action against the rising threat that animal pathogens pose to the world’s security at the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) Meeting of States Parties.

Accidental or deliberate release of animal pathogens can have disastrous repercussions for public health, economies, and social stability because 60% of human infectious diseases originate from animals (zoonoses) and, infectious diseases of animals also cause huge losses to agriculture. Because of these impacts, most agents that can be used for bioweapons are animal pathogens.  --  Rising instability together with weak veterinary services pose a threat to world security: OIE,  10 December 2012

Bioweapons Discussion:
10 December 2012

The Red Line of Chemical Weapons has been drawn, and crossed by reports of chemical attacks with White Phosphorus on civilian populations.  Focus moves to preventing a CBRNE attack with Sarin, VX, Tabun or a biological weapon.
8 December 2012

Discussions continue regarding CBRNE WMD Crisis In Iraq:

7 December 2012

From: Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282
Email: s.m.apatow@humanitarian.net
Internet: www.humanitarian.net

Url: www.H-II.org

International Disaster Information Network

Video: Syrians get guide to chemical weapons preparation - Al Arabiya

Special Thanks to the Syrian American Medical Society (SAMS) for passing this on.  SAMS, a nonprofit US-based, professional Medical organization representing the 7000 Syrian American Health Professionals worldwide


Discussions associated with
collapse of critical medical infrastructure in Syria: Population Impact: 21 Million


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