Emerging Infectious Disease Network
Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE)
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Reference Library is a
collaborative initiative of international veterinary, medical and
scientific experts to share information and enhance academic discussion
of emerging infectious diseases and issues associated with
preparedness, response, mitigation and policy. ..
Director of Research & Development
Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Consortium Graduate Studies
for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
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The GNN article speculates that the chance of
developing a human prion disease in any form is less than one in a
million. This statistic is being challenged by research at Yale
University (Medline) that found 13 percent of Alzheimer's
patients actually had CJD and potential association with BSE prion
either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains (demonstrated in transgenic mice expressing human prion
- Research indicates mad cow pathogen can cause both
sporadic or classical Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) and varient form:
(HRI) - Call for International Action by the World Organization for
Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
and World Health Organization (WHO).
- Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE) in
America: Humanitarian Resource Institute.
Analysis of prion disease in animals: C.I. Lasmézas
& D.B. Adams (eds), OIE, Scientific and Technical Review, Volume 22
(1), April 2003.
- Advancing Prion Science: Guidance for the National
Research Program (2003): National Academy of Sciences
- EU Geographical BSE Risk Assessment: Country
Reports, Outcome of discussions: Opinions - Minutes.
- Genome Affects Human Forms of “Mad Cow” Disease:
Genome News Network (GNN), 23 January 2004.
- Agent Summary Statements, Section VII-D: Prions,
CDC: Office of Health and Safety (OHS), BMBL Section VII.
For additional information on genomics research, visit the HRI Bioinformatics: Pathological Diagnostics web
& Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Veterinary Research & Publications
General Information: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease): FAO recommends precautions
FAO estimates that between 1986-96 up to today, meat and bone meal
(MBM) from Europe was exported to more than 100 countries.
Around 100 countries imported live cattle. Some countries also
re-exported MBM to third countries. All countries which have
imported cattle or meat and bone meal that originated from Western
Europe, during and since the 1980s, can be therefore considered at risk
from the disease. Regions that have imported sizeable quantities of
meat meal from the UK during and since the 1980s include the Near East,
Eastern Europe and Asia.