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Humanitarian University Consortium
Distance Education Initiative

One Medicine: One Health (Zoonotic Disease) Online Test

Presented by

Stephen M. Apatow, Director of Research and Development  
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Law

The following online test encompasses 135 questions (True/False) related to the diseases outlined One Medicine, One Health (Zoonotic Disease) Online Course. 

Fee: PayPal $250.00 processing fee, required for validation: certificate of completion.
Upon payment of the processing fee, completion and submission of this test, individuals with a passing grade of 75% or above will receive a certificate of completion by Humanitarian Resource Institute






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Section I. AVMA article "Biological terrorism against animals and humans: a brief review and primer for action:"

1. Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis is considered a catagory A agent. True or False..

2. Francisella tularensis, a catagory A agent could potentially pose a risk to national security. True or False..

3. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, a catagory B agent could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future because of availability, ease of production and dissemination, and potential for high morbidity and mortality and major health impact. True or False..

4. The Department of Justice and the CDC's Public Health Assessment Instrument for Public Health Preparedness recommends that local public health planners develop a roster of individuals with technical expertise able to respond to a biological, chemical, or radiological terrorist event; plan to initiate contact with veterinarians and other public health professionals within two hours. True or False..

5. Veterinarians have an important role in bioterrorism response preparation, surveillance for potential bioterrorism events, treatment of the ill, and in the control of disease. True or False..

6. If economic and political vulnerabilities are factored in as contributing issues, then agricultural bioterrorism (the intentional targeting of a nation's livestock and crop resources) becomes more likely, perhaps even more so than attacks against humans. True or False..

7. A recent study by US public health officials concluded that the veterinary education model "which looks at populations rather than individual patients, might serve as a model for the medical community. True or False..

8. To prevent confusion and costly delays in recognition and reporting, veterinarians should seek continuing education opportunities on natural and intentionally introduced foreign animal diseases, that include a review of the clinical signs of these diseases, as well as variations in their relative species susceptibility. True or False..

9. There is no need for veterinary practitioners to work closely with their human medical counterparts at the local level. True or False..

Section II. Zoonotic Disease 

10. Brucella abortus is most likely zoonotic agent in the lab animal facility. True or False..

11. Salmonella is not considered a common bacterial cause of food-poisoning worldwide. True or False..

12. Salmonella typhi is the cause of Typhoid Fever. True or False..

13. Infected sheep, goats and poultry are usually asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella. True or False..

14. Salmonella infection in humans is not notifiable in the United States. True or False..

15. The principal reservoir of Shigellosis infection for man is the cannine host. True or False..

16. In human Shigellosis infection, treatment of hypertension is lifesaving in severe cases. True or False..

17. During an outbreak of Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis, also known as the "Black Death," 25,000,000 people perished, a fourth of the population of the world. True or False..

18. Yersonia Pestis is ubiquitous in nature and can be isolated from dust, soil, water, milk. True or False..

19. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a complication of Yersinia Enterocolitica. True or False..

20. According to the CDC strategic plan for the response to biological and chemical terrorism, Yersinia Pestis is classified as a catagory 3 agent. True or False..

21. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world with upwards of one billion people infected with the tubercle bacillus. True or False..

22. Dusty bedding of infected animals, coughing of infected animals, and aerosolization of the organism during sanitation procedures may also be source of exposure to Mycobacterium bacilli. True or False..

23. Miliary TB is rarely seen in the very young or old people. True or False..

24. Mycobacterium leprae is easy to distinguish from other unculturable mycobacteria naturally infecting animals. True or False..

25. Man is the principal reservoir of Mycobacterium leprae. True or False..

26. Contact isolation is required for lepromatous leprosy. True or False..

27. Raw crustaceans are implicated in up to 90% of food-related cases of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. True or False..

28. Listeria monocytogenes is a gram negative coccobacillus. True or False..

29. Person-to-person transmission of Listeria monocytogenes is possiblefrom inhalation of the organism. True or False..

30. Rodents are the only major animal species that can shed leptospires throughout their life-span without clinical manifestations. True or False..

31. Weil's syndrome-usually caused by Leptospira canicola. True or False..

32. Epidemic louse-borne infection is not considered zoonotic. True or False..

33. Humans.Louse-borne relapsing fever is not notifiable to the World Health organization. True or False..

34. Borrelia burgdorferi  was first implicated in 1982 as agent in a 1975 epidemic of juvenile inflammatory arthropathy in Old Lyme Connecticut. True or False..

35. Birds are an important reservoir and means of dispersal.of Borrelia burgdorferi, contributing to spread to 46 states with the annual number of Lyme disease cases increasing 18 fold from 497 to 8803. True or False..

36. As the main reservoirs for human Campylobacter infection, Ferrets shed organisms for long period of time (> 16 weeks). True or False..

37. Campylobacter has been isolated from houseflies. True or False..

38. Contact with dogs and cats have been indicated as sources of Colibacillosis infection for children. True or False..

39. Hjarre's disease (coligranuloma), which is a condition in suckling pigs, characterized by granulomatous lesions in the liver, cecum, spleen, bone marrow, and lungs. True or False..

40. 30-35% of healthy humans have staphylococci in the nasopharynx and on the skin, therefore, sneezing, coughing, expectorating can contaminate food. True or False..

41. The blood contains very large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. True or False..

42. A main features Anthrax infection is disseminated intravascular coagulation. True or False..

43. In Staphylococcal food poisening, Enterotoxin  F is the most prevalent in outbreaks. True or False..

44. If environmental conditions are favorable, Staphylococcal aureus multiplies in the food and produces enterotoxins that are not destroyed even if the food is subjected to boiling while being cooked. True or False..

45. The Staphylococcal bacterium is intertransmissible between man and animals and that the latter may reinfect man. True or False..

46. Dermatophilus congolensis in animals is also referred to as pustular desquamative dermatitis. True or False..

47. Clinical infection of Pseudomonas pseudomallei  in endemic areas based on serology is common. True or False..

48. Pseudomonas mallei can be differentiated from Pseudomonas pseudomallei serologically. True or False..

 49. The fatality rate of P.mallei in humans is 95% if left untreated. True or False..

50. Francisella tularensis, a small pleomorphic, gram-positive, coccobacillus that can survive several weeks in the external environment. True or False..

51. To prevent transmission of Francisella tularensis, avoid bites of flies, mosquitos, and ticks and avoid drinking, bathing, swimming in untreated water in endemic areas. True or False..

52. Spirillum minus (Haverhill Fever) was named after a 1926 outbreak in Haverhill, Mass. attributed to contaminated milk. True or False..

53. Oral cavity and upper respiratory tract secretions of all animals and birds may be colonized by Pasteurella multocida. True or False..

54. Clostridium perfringens food poisoning is due to spore contamination of foods which survive heating to vegetate in unrefrigerated conditions. True or False..

55. Chlamydia psittaci can cause inapparent infection or fulminant infection in the same host. True or False..

56. The reservoir for fungal conidia  is environmental, probably the soil. True or False..

57. Diphyllobothrium latum is common in coastal South America, especially Peru. True or False..

58. The definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium pacificum include humans, dogs and cats. True or False..

59. In humans, dogs and cats. Diphyllobothriasis is usually asymptomatic. True or False..

60. Larval diphyllobothriasis is a common disease in humans with localizations of sparganum in subcutaneous connective tissue and superficial muscles. True or False..

61. In man, Bertielliasis is caused by ingesting food containing the mites infected with cysticercoid larvae. True or False..

62. In Dipylidiasis, Dogs, and cats are the intermediate hosts which harbor the cysticercoid larvae. True or False..

63. Echinococcus granulosis - causes "alveolar" disease. True or False..

64. Hymenolepis diminuta in rodents and humans is a result of accidentally swallowing  the infected arthropods (fleas, beetles, and cockroaches that serve as intermediate hosts), usually in cereals or stored products. True or False..

65. Humans can be both definitive and intermediate hosts of Hymenolepis nana, causing the same disease pattern as Hymenolepis diminuta. True or False..

66. Microsporum canis can be carried by up to 89% of nonsymptomatic cats. True or False..

67. Pulmonary sporotrichosis can be confused with TB. True or False..

68. Cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis are fungal infections categorized as to the location on the body, caused by the organisms Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. True or False..

69. Anisakiasis infection can only be treated by antihelminthic drugs. True or False..

70. Subclinical Trichinellosis is common in commercial pork operations. True or False..

71. In rodents, Angiostrongylosis cantonensis  produces lesions that are located primarily in the cecum, as well as focal or diffuse edema of the subserosa, a reduction in mesenteric fat, and swelling of the regional lymph nodes. True or False..

72. In man, the clinical manifestations of abdominal angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylosis cantonensis are moderate but prolonged fever, abdominal pain on the right side. and, frequently, anorexia, diarrhea, and vomiting. True or False..

73. Angiostrongyliasis usually persists for weeks to months, the parasite dies, and the patient then recovers spontaneously, usually without sequelae. True or False..

74. Ancylostoma infection is a common worm infection of humans and domestic dogs and cats in various tropical and subtropical countries where disposal of human feces is inadequate. True or False..

75. In the transmission cycle of capillariasis, humans are infected by eating raw fish containing infective larvae, the parasite lives in the intestines of humans , autoinfection occurs and human feces contain large numbers of ova which contaminate watercourses and infect freshwater fish. True or False..

76. The commonest causative agent of filariasis is Wuchereria bancrofti, which zoonotic. True or False..

77. The reservoir mechanism for Toxocara cati  is latent infections in female cats which are reactivated during pregnancy. Transmission from mother to Kittens is via the placenta and milk. True or False..

78. Deaths associated with Oesophagostomiasis in non human primates  may result from  perforation of the intestine and peritonitis. True or False..

79. Man acquires Trichostrongylosis infection mainly by consuming raw vegetables contaminated with the infective larvae. True or False..

80. The causative agent of Ascariasis  in humans is usually Ascaris suum which is considered occasionally a zoonotic infection. True or False..

81. Babesia can easily be misdiagnosed as Plasmodium in malaria-endemic areas. True or False..

82. An estimated 500 million humans have been infected with Toxoplasma gondii, with 1/3 of US human population having serologic evidence of past infection. True or False..

83. Four species of Plasmodium are known to infect humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax , P. ovale  and P. malariae. True or False..

84. In Gambian trypanosomiasis, animals, especially domestic cattle and pigs, play an important role as reservoirs. True or False..

85. Humans are the main reservoir and source of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi. True or False..

86. An estimated 12 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, mostly in rural areas, resulting in about 60,000 deaths yearly. True or False..

87. It is estimated that there are about 50 million case of invasive amebiasis and 40,000-100,000 deaths annually worldwide. True or False..

88. After Cryptosporidium oocysts are passed in stool, sporulation occurs in 2 to 3 days. True or False..

89. Giardia lamblia infection occurs worldwide and is nearly universal in children in developing countries. True or False..

90. Wild animals, dogs and humans serve as reservoirs of Leishmania. True or False..

91. Without treatment, the case fatality rate of visceral Leishmaniosis is 90%. True or False..

92. Microsporidia are obligatory extracellular parasites (macrophages, histiocytes, endothelial cells, kidney tubular cells, etc.) with a characteristic spore stage and a unique mode of infecting host cells. True or False..

93. Coxiella burnetii is shed in urine, feces, milk, and especially birth products of domestic ungulates that generally do not show clinical disease (usually sheep and goats). True or False..

94. Coxiella burnetii is resistant to drying and can persist for months while providing extensive environmental contamination. True or False..

95. 11 to 59% of dogs in U.S. are serologically positive for Rickettsia rickettsii. True or False..

96. Ehrlichiosis is similar to Rocky mountain spotted fever, but no rash. True or False..

97. Ehrlichiosis is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States. True or False..

98. Aerosol is a major means of transmission of Rickettsia akari. True or False..

99. Mites (“chiggers”) transmit Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of Murine typhus, to humans. True or False..

100. Humans are the reservoir for Schistosoma japonicum. True or False..

101. Schistosomiasis infects more than 200 million persons worldwide. True or False..

102. Orthopoxvirus Disease in humans is indistinguishable from smallpox. True or False..

103. Vaccination with vaccinia virus is not protective against Monkey Pox in both man and nonhuman primates. True or False..

104. There are more than 35 Herpesviruses of non human primates, most of which are zoonotic. True or False..

105. 80-100% of imported adult rhesus may have antibody for Herpesvirus. True or False..

106. Clinical disease is rarely observed with generalized Herpes simplex in human infants. True or False..

107. All arboviral encephalitides are zoonotic. True or False..

108. Humans and domestic animals serve as the primary vertebrate hosts in the complex  transmission cycle of arboviral encephalitides. True or False..

109. La Crosse (LAC) encephalitis is an alphavirus and is a zoonotic pathogen cycled between the daytime-biting treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus, and vertebrate amplifier hosts (chipmunks, tree squirrels) in deciduous forest habitats. True or False..

110. Approximately one-third of all people with clinical encephalitis caused by eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) will die from the disease and of those who recover, many will suffer permanent brain damage with many of those requiring permanent institutional care. True or False..

111. The enzootic cycle of western equine encephalitis (WEE) involves passerine birds, in which the infection is inapparent, and culicine mosquitoes, principally Culex pipiens. True or False..

112. St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) is the most common mosquito-transmitted human pathogen in the U.S. True or False..

113. The St. Louis encephalitis syndrome is more frequent in elderly persons; its frequency increases from 56% in patients up to 20 years old to 87% in those over 60. True or False..

114. Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus and currently the only well documented tick-borne transmitted arbovirus occurring in the United States and Canada. True or False..

115. A St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) epidemic occurred in the fall of 1995 in Venezuela and Colombia with an estimated 90,000 human infections. True or False..

116. It was estimated that over 200,000 horses died during a large 1971 Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootic in Texas, which was controlled by a massive equine vaccination program using an experimental live attenuated VEE vaccine. True or False..

117. Human vaccines are now available for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), western equine encephalitis (WEE), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and La Crosse (LAC) encephalitis. True or False..

118. Pigs are the main amplifying hosts of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus in peridomestic environments. True or False..

119. Humans may serve as the primary host in the transmission cycle of Yellow Fever. True or False..

120. The reservoir hosts of the hantavirus in the southwestern United States also act as hosts for the bacterium Yersinia pestis. True or False..

121. Laboratory work that may result in propagation of hantaviruses should be conducted in a special facility (biosafety level 1). True or False..

122. Junin Virus, Machupo Virus and Lassa Fever are classified in the Bunyaviridae family, Hantaan virus genus. True or False..

123. Person to person transmission of Lymphocytic Choriomemingitis (LCM) is common. True or False..

124. Marburg virus is100% fatal in experimentally infected African Green Monkeys, Rhesus, squirrel monkeys, guinea pigs, and hamsters. True or False..

125. Ebola is similar to Marburg both morphologically and antigenically. True or False..

126. Rabies, an acute, fatal encephalomyelitis caused by neurotropic viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae is found on all continents except Antarctica. True or False..

127. The clinical course of Rabies infection can be divided into 3 phases: the prodromal, the excitative, and the paralytic. True or False..

128. Transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) cannot occur through exposure to contaminated water, ice, or shellfish harvested from sewage-contaminated water; or from fruits, vegetables, or other foods that are eaten uncooked and that were contaminated during harvesting or subsequent handling. True or False..

129. New world monkeys are the only known reservoir of Rubeola. True or False..

130. Humans, wild and domestic birds, horses and pigs are reservoirs of influenza viruses, which appear to be species specific. True or False..

131. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children, resulting in the hospitalization of approximately 55,000 children each year in the United States and the death of over 600,000 children annually worldwide. True or False..

132. Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) can be classified as a zoonotic disease. True or False..

133. Unlike many viruses, the properties of prions change dramatically when they are passaged from one species to another. True or False..

 134. The susceptibility of a particular species to prions from another species can be profoundly affected by different prion strains. True or False..

135. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), and Exotic ungulate encephalopathy (EUE) are all thought to occur after the consumption of prion-infected foods. True or False..


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