Stephen M. Apatow
Founder, Director of Research & Development
Humanitarian Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Humanitarian University Consortium Graduate Studies
Center for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Phone: 203-668-0282
Email: s.m.apatow@humanitarian.net
Internet: www.humanitarian.net

Pathobiologics International
Internet: www.pathobiologics.org
Monkeypox:  Biodefense and Epidemiological Tracking
Note: The strain of this orthopoxvirus (ICTVdB Virus Descriptions) is still under analysis. One of the most significant outbreaks, as described by the Netcare report, Monkeypox in Congo ( DRC ), 1 October 2002:
  • Once introduced, human-to-human transmission occurs.
  • The outbreak constituted an epidemic in the region (mortality rate = 37.5 per 100) and therefore worthy of serious intervention.
  • The large number of cases may well reflect the increase in the number of susceptible people in DRC as a result of almost non-existent smallpox vaccination in the region.
  • The monkeypox virus is a close relative of the smallpox virus and can spread as readily.
Monkeypox: Related Articles/Research: NCBI, PubMed, Indexed for Medline.


Centers for Disease Control (Monkeypox: Updates/Advisories)

Legal Discussion


Viral Diseases: Zoonotic Disease Online Review, Humanitarian Resource Institute
Disease Overview: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Orthopoxvirus Disease in humans is indistinguishable from smallpox, (Variola) i.e., serologic & clinical syndrome. 
Reservoir and Incidence:
Animals: Nine reported outbreaks in captive NHP's, primarily rhesus and cynomolgus. Has also been reported in languors, baboons, chimpanzees, orangutans, marmosets, gorillas, gibbons, and squirrel monkeys. The virus has been isolated from a wild squirrel. Man: The first human case of Monkey Pox was reported in 1970. Between 1970 and 1986, over 400 cases had been reported from tropical rain forested areas of West and Central Africa. 
Transmission can be via direct contact, aerosol, ingestion, or parenteral administration. Person to person transmission can occur. 
Disease in Nonhuman Primates:
Usually exhibit a high morbidity and low mortality. Clinical signs may be inapparent or an animal may exhibit fever, lymphadenopathy, and cutaneous eruptions of the extremities, trunk, lips, or face. Cynos seem to be most severely affected. Death is uncommon except in infant monkeys. 
Disease in Man:
Signs in man include fever, sore throat, headache, and a vesiculopustular rash of peripheral distribution which clears up in 5 to 25 days. Severe complications include bronchopneumonia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Case fatality rate 10-15%. Although the disease is not common in man it is important from the standpoint of differentiating it from smallpox. 
Based on progression of lesions, histopathology and virus isolation. On histological examination epidermal cells contain eosinophilic cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions. ELISA 
Sanitation, isolation. Vaccination with vaccinia virus is protective in both man and nonhuman primates. 


  • Poxvirus Bioinformatics Resource Center. The Center provides a relational database that supports data storage of poxvirus genomic sequences, and annotation and analysis of poxvirus genes; web-based data mining and sequence analysis tools; software for analysis of complete genomes; a poxvirus literature resource; a repository of poxvirus species and strains (at ATCC); and a discussion forum. The Poxvirus Bioinformatics Resource Center was created by a consortium of laboratories. An Advisory Committee has been established to help guide the development of this Center. Funding for this project is being provided by the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
  • Bioinformatics: Pathobiological Diagnostics: Humanitarian Resource Institute.
  • Zoonotic Disease Online Review: This resource was developed by Humanitarian Resource Institute for medical and veterinary Professionals to assist in medical surveillance and response activities associated with zoonotic and epizootic diseases. 
  • Foreign Animal Disease Online Course: This resource was developed by Humanitarian Resource Institute to enhance training for the recognition of Foreign Animal Disease's for field veterinarians.
  • Smallpox Resource List, Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy, Academic Health Center -- University of Minnesota 

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