Stephen M. Apatow
Director of Research & Development
Resource Institute (UN:NGO:DESA)
Consortium Graduate Studies
for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine & Law
Biodefense and Epidemiological Tracking
The strain of this orthopoxvirus (ICTVdB
Virus Descriptions) is still under analysis. One of the most
outbreaks, as described by the Netcare report, Monkeypox
in Congo ( DRC ), 1 October 2002:
Related Articles/Research: NCBI, PubMed, Indexed for Medline.
human-to-human transmission occurs.
constituted an epidemic in the region (mortality rate = 37.5 per 100)
therefore worthy of serious intervention.
number of cases may well reflect the increase in the number of
people in DRC as a result of almost non-existent smallpox vaccination
virus is a close relative of the smallpox virus and can spread as
for Disease Control (Monkeypox:
Monkeypox - CDC Reccomendations for Veterinarians (12 June 2003)
Recommends Smallpox Vaccination to Protect Persons Exposed to Monkeypox
(CDC Media Relations, 11 June 2003)
Bans Rodent Imports from Africa; Prohibits Domestic Commerce in Rodents
and Prairie Dogs (6/11/03 2:15:04 PM)
Case Definition for Human Case of Monkeypox: (Jun 11, 2003, 8:00 AM
Report: Multistate Outbreak of Monkeypox in Persons Exposed to Pet
Dogs (Jun 9, 2003, 12:00 AM ET)
Infection Control and Exposure Management Guidance in the Health-Care
Community Setting for Patients with Possible Monkeypox Virus Infection:
(Jun 9, 2003, 2:00 AM ET)
Infections In Animals: Interim Guidance for Veterinarians and Pet Owners:
(Jun 9, 2003, 4:00 AM ET)
Health Investigation Uncovers First Outbreak of Human Monkeypox
in Western Hemisphere: CDC Media Relations, 7 June 2003
Diseases: Zoonotic Disease Online Review, Humanitarian
Animal Care and Use Committee, University of California, Santa
Disease in humans is indistinguishable from smallpox, (Variola) i.e.,
& clinical syndrome.
Nine reported outbreaks in captive NHP's, primarily rhesus and
Has also been reported in languors, baboons, chimpanzees, orangutans,
gorillas, gibbons, and squirrel monkeys. The virus has been isolated
a wild squirrel. Man: The first human case of Monkey Pox was reported
1970. Between 1970 and 1986, over 400 cases had been reported from
rain forested areas of West and Central Africa.
can be via direct contact, aerosol, ingestion, or parenteral
Person to person transmission can occur.
exhibit a high morbidity and low mortality. Clinical signs may be
or an animal may exhibit fever, lymphadenopathy, and cutaneous
of the extremities, trunk, lips, or face. Cynos seem to be most
affected. Death is uncommon except in infant monkeys.
in man include fever, sore throat, headache, and a vesiculopustular
of peripheral distribution which clears up in 5 to 25 days. Severe
include bronchopneumonia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Case fatality rate
Although the disease is not common in man it is important from the
of differentiating it from smallpox.
on progression of lesions, histopathology and virus isolation. On
examination epidermal cells contain eosinophilic cytoplasmic and
isolation. Vaccination with vaccinia virus is protective in both man
Bioinformatics Resource Center. The Center provides a relational
that supports data storage of poxvirus genomic sequences, and
and analysis of poxvirus genes; web-based data mining and sequence
tools; software for analysis of complete genomes; a poxvirus literature
resource; a repository of poxvirus species and strains (at ATCC); and a
discussion forum. The Poxvirus Bioinformatics Resource Center was
by a consortium of laboratories. An Advisory Committee has been
to help guide the development of this Center. Funding for this project
is being provided by the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious
Diseases, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
Pathobiological Diagnostics: Humanitarian Resource Institute.
Bioterrorism and Biodiversity: potential impacts of biological weapons
attacks on agricultural and biological diversity. J.P. Dudley, M.H.
Woodford, rev.sci.tech.Off.int.Epiz.,2002,21(1), 125-137. pdf file
– Potential as Bioweapon: US Army Center for Health Promotion and
Medicine. On 9 June, 2002 the United Press International reported that
scientists and former UN weapons inspectors told them that the Russians
worked with monkeypox in their bioweapons program and it is possible
terrorists could use it in a biological attack.
of Mass Destruction, Nonproliferation and International Security:
M. Apatow, Humanitarian Resource Institute Legal Resource Center,
Disease Online Review: This resource was developed by Humanitarian
Resource Institute for medical and veterinary Professionals to assist
medical surveillance and response activities associated with zoonotic
Animal Disease Online Course: This resource was developed by
Resource Institute to enhance training for the recognition of Foreign
Disease's for field veterinarians.
Resource List, Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy,
Academic Health Center -- University of Minnesota
to the Foreign
and Zoonotic Disease Center.
© 1994-2003 Humanitarian Resource Institute. All rights